The corporation tax rates for small and large companies was aligned at 20% from April 2015.. The rates for the three financial years to 31 March 2022 are as follows:
|Year beginning 1 April:||2021||2022||2023|
|Corporate Tax Rate – Ring fenced||19%||19%||19%|
|Corporate Tax main rate – Non-ring fenced||19%||19%||25%|
|Corporate Tax small profits rate||19%||19%||19%|
From 1 April 2023, the Corporation Tax main rate for non-ring fenced profits will be increased to 25% applying to profits over £250,000. A small profits rate (SPR) will also be introduced for companies with profits of £50,000 or less so that they will continue to pay Corporation Tax at 19%. Companies with profits between £50,000 and £250,000 will pay tax at the main rate reduced by a marginal relief.
Research and Development (R&D)
Small and medium (SME) companies can claim enhanced deductions for expenditure on R&D projects at 230% of qualifying expenditure. Where the deduction is claimed and the company makes a loss, it can claim a cash credit from HMRC of 14.5% of that loss.
Research and Development Expenditure Credit (RDEC) scheme
Large companies can claim a 13% uplift on the following qualifying expenditure:
- Staffing costs
- Expenditure on externally provided workers
- Software and materials
- Contributions to independent research
- Subcontractors of qualifying bodies and individuals/partnerships
RDEC differs from the previous R&D scheme for large companies as it is an 'above the line' tax credit and can be accounted for in the profit/loss statement.
Around 53 enterprise zones have been formed around the country to encourage investment and job formation. Businesses in some of those zones can claim 100% capital allowances on the equipment they use within the zone. The period for which those 100% allowance are available has been extended by three years to 31 March 2020.
From 1 April 2021 until 31 March 2023, companies investing in qualifying new plant and machinery assets will be able to claim:
- a 130% super-deduction capital allowance on qualifying plant and machinery investments
- a 50% first-year allowance for qualifying special rate assets